- Section 2: Testing and Assessment
- Initial History
- Initial Physical Examination
- Initial and Interim Laboratory and Other Tests
- Interim History and Physical Examination
- HIV Classification: CDC and WHO Staging Systems
- CD4 and Viral Load Monitoring
- Risk of HIV Progression/Indications for ART
- Early HIV Infection
- Expedited HIV Testing
- Resistance Testing
- Karnofsky Performance Scale
- Occupational Postexposure Prophylaxis
- Nonoccupational Postexposure Prophylaxis
- Preventing HIV Transmission/Prevention with Positives
- Immunizations for HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents
- Preventing Exposure to Opportunistic and Other Infections
- Opportunistic Infection Prophylaxis
- Latent Tuberculosis Infection
- Smoking Cessation
- Abnormalities of Body-Fat Distribution
- Insulin Resistance, Hyperglycemia, and Diabetes on Antiretroviral Therapy
- Coronary Heart Disease Risk
- Renal Disease
- Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
- Anal Dysplasia
- Candidiasis, Oral and Esophageal
- Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal
- Cervical Dysplasia
- Cryptococcal Disease
- Cytomegalovirus Disease
- Gonorrhea and Chlamydia
- Hepatitis B Infection
- Hepatitis C Infection
- Herpes Simplex, Mucocutaneous
- Herpes Zoster/Shingles
- Kaposi Sarcoma
- Molluscum Contagiosum
- Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
- Pneumocystis Pneumonia
- Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
- Seborrheic Dermatitis
Publish date: April 2014
The care and management of HIV-infected patients is a rapidly evolving field. Keeping up to date with clinical information about HIV care has in the past required attendance at national and international conferences. With the increasing availability of the Internet, clinicians and patients are able to access the most current advances through Web coverage, without requiring travel or time away from work.
The challenge of using Internet resources is in determining which websites are accurate and current. Check for dates of authorship, the credentials of the site sponsors and authors, and how well supported any recommendations or analysis may be. Be aware of any possible commercial bias. Finally, it is important to remember that information on these sites does not replace clinical judgment or consultation with HIV experts.
Listed below is a selection of useful and accurate Internet sites. Many of these websites also link out to additional information resources, and many allow users to subscribe to receive updates via email. Many providers find it helpful to review sites geared toward patients, in order to maintain familiarity with patients' concerns and patient-based information resources.
Resources for Clinicians
Official repository for HIV/AIDS information from the U.S. Public Health Service. Content includes national clinical trial information, drug and vaccine overviews, fact sheets for patients, and a clinical guidelines portal that includes the following:
- Adult and Adolescent ARV Guidelines
- Adult and Adolescent OI Prevention and Treatment Guidelines
- Perinatal Guidelines
- Pediatric ARV Guidelines
- Pediatric OI Prevention and Treatment Guidelines
- Guidelines on Care for HIV-Infected Residents Displaced from Disaster Areas
- Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Guidelines
- Occupational Postexposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Guidelines
- Nonoccupational Postexposure Prophylaxis (nPEP) Guidelines
- Recommendations for Hormonal Contraception
- HIV Counseling, Testing, and Referral Guidelines
- Guidelines on Incorporating HIV Prevention into Medical Care
- TARGET Center
The central source of Ryan White training and technical assistance, including clinical care resources funded by HRSA's HIV/AIDS Bureau.
- AIDS Education and Training Centers National Resource Center
Clinical training resources, including curricula, self-study, and slide sets, including slides for all national guidelines.
- Clinician Consultation Center
An AIDS Education and Training Centers clinical resource for health care professionals, with contact information for the Warmline, PEPline, and Perinatal HIV Hotline.
London-based HIV/AIDS news and treatment information site. Patient information is written at both lower and higher literacy levels. International focus.
- Clinical Care Options for HIV
Continuing Medical Education (CME) materials related to HIV/AIDS, including conference reviews.
- HIV InSite
Major HIV/AIDS portal from the University of California San Francisco. Includes HIV InSite Knowledge Base, updated ARV information, including an ARV interactions database, global country profiles, and links out to other useful sites.
- HIV Drug Resistance Database
Information on resistance mutations to antiretroviral medications from Stanford University.
- HIV Web Study
Northwest AETC, University of Washington. Dozens of online clinical cases featuring downloadable tables, charts, and images.
- International Antiviral Society-USA
ARV resistance mutations charts and "Cases on the Web" online CME courses.
- Journal Watch: HIV/AIDS Clinical Care
From the publishers of the New England Journal of Medicine, Journal Watch features updates and analysis online or via a weekly email newsletter.
- Medscape HIV/AIDS Topic Area
CME materials related to HIV/AIDS, including conference coverage, news, and special features.
- VA National HIV/AIDS Program
Comprehensive information portal for providers. Also has a section for veterans and patients.
- Women, Children, and HIV
Expert-selected, evidence-based information on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, care of women and children with HIV, and related topics.
Resources for Patients and the Community
HIV.gov provides access to Federal HIV/AIDS information through a variety of new media channels, and supports the use of new media tools by Federal and community partners to improve domestic HIV programs serving minority and other communities most at-risk of, or living with, HIV.
Online home of AIDS Treatment News.
- AIDS InfoNet
Comprehensive collection of fact sheets on clinical topics, available in English and Spanish, in print-friendly and downloadable formats. Regularly updated.
Information regarding HIV-related medications for patients, including drug interactions calculator.
- AIDS Project Los Angeles
Fact sheets, newsletters, and program information. Some information in Spanish.
- The Body
Major HIV information resource geared toward patients and the community.
- Gay Men's Health Crisis
Patient and program information from one of the oldest community organizations. Some information in Spanish.
- Project Inform
Comprehensive information and advocacy information geared toward individuals infected and affected by HIV.
- San Francisco AIDS Foundation
AIDS 101, BETA treatment newsletter, and prevention and program information. Some information in Spanish.
- The Well Project
Health resources for women diagnosed with HIV and AIDS.
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Abbreviations for Dosing Terminology
- twice daily
- twice weekly
- intramuscular (injection), intramuscularly
- intravenous (injection), intravenously
- oral, orally
- Q2H, Q4H, etc.
- every 2 hours, every 4 hours, etc.
- every morning
- once daily
- every hour
- every night at bedtime
- four times daily
- every other day
- every evening
- three times daily
- three times weekly