Developed by the AETC Engagement in Care Workgroup
Note: This Working Group was convened to gather information about interventions that may have some utility in the improvement of care entry and retention. It should be noted that there are few randomized clinical trials or robust observational cohort data with biologic outcomes to support many interventions at this time. Therefore this chart is not intended to constitute recommendations that these interventions should be implemented, but rather to display the range of available options and to convey some sense of their strengths and challenges in the context of available evidence. We encourage that interventions be structured in such a way that outcome data may be collected and evaluated to advance the knowledge base in these important areas. For help using this tool in your clinic, please contact your local AIDS Education and Training Center.
|ARTAS Linkage Case Management (ALCM)|
|Traditional Case Management|
- AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth, and Families. (2005). Finding HIV-Positive Youth and Bringing Them into Care. Washington, DC.
- Bradford JB, Coleman S, Cunningham W. (2007). HIV System Navigation: an emerging model to improve HIV care access. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 21: 49-58.
- Buscher, A, Mugavero, M. Westfall, A.O., Keruly, J. Moore, R. Drainoni, M.L. Sullivan, M; Wilson, T.E. Rodriguez, A. Metsch, L. Gardner, L. Marks, G. Malitz, F & Giordano, T.P. (2013). The Association of Clinical Follow-Up Intervals in HIV-Infected Persons with Viral Suppression on Subsequent Viral Suppression. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 27(8), 1-8.
- Craw J.A., Gardner L.I., Marks G., Rapp R.C., Bosshart J., Duffus W.A., Rossman A., Coughlin S.L., Gruber D., Safford L.A., Overton J., Schmitt K. (2008). Brief Strengths-based Case Management Promotes Entry into HIV Medical Care: results of the antiretroviral treatment access study-II. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 47(5):597-606.
- Dowshen N., Kuhns L.M., Johnson A., Holoyda B.J., Garofalo R. (2012). Improving Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy for Youth with HIV/AIDS: a pilot study using personalized, interactive, daily text message reminders. Journal of Medical Internet Research.14(2), article e5.
- Fisher, J.D., Fisher, W. A., Cornman, D. H., Amico, R. K., Bryan, A., & Friedland, G. H.(2006). Clinician-delivered Intervention During Routine Clinical Care Reduces Unprotected Sexual Behavior among HIV-infected Patients. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 41 (1), 44-52.
- Gardner, L.I., Marks, G. Craw, J.A., Wilson T.E., Drainoni, M.L., Moore, R.D., Mugavero, M.J., Rodriguez, A.E., Bradley-Springer, L.A., Holman, S., Keruly, J.C., Sullivan, M, Skolnik, P.R., Mallitz, F, Metsch, L.R., Raper, J.L., & Giordano, T.P. (2012). A Low-Effort, Clinic-Wide Intervention Improves Attendance for HIV Primary Care. HIV/AIDS, 55, 1124-1134.
- Gardner L.I., Marks G., Craw J., Metsch L., Strathdee S., Anderson-Mahoney, P., del Rio, C. (2009). Antiretroviral Treatment Access Study Group. Demographic, psychological, and behavioral modifiers of the Antiretroviral Treatment Access Study (ARTAS) intervention. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 23(9):735-42.
- Giordano, T. P., Rodriquez, S., Zhang, H., Kallen, M. A., Jibaja-Weiss, M., Buscher, A. L., Arya, M., Suarez-Almazor, M. E., & Ross, M. (2013). Effect of a Clinic-wide Social Marketing Campaign to Improve Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV infection. AIDS Behavior, 17, 104-112.
- Hildalgo, J., Coombs, E., Cobbs, W. O., Green-Jones, M., Phillips, G., Wohl, A. R., Smith, J. C., Ramos, A. R., & Fields, S. D. (2011). Roles and Challenges of Outreach Workers in HIV Clinical and Support Programs Serving Young Racial/Ethnic Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 25, S15-S22.
- Kurth A, Kuo I, Peterson J, et al. (2013). Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community. AIDS Research and Treatment. 1-6.
- Kushel, M.B., Colfax, G., Ragland, K., Heineman, A., Palacio, H., Bangsberg, D.R. (2006). Case management is Associated with Improved Antiretroviral Adherence and CD4+ Cell Counts in Homeless and Marginally Housed Individuals with HIV Infection. Clinical infectious diseases. 43(2), 234-242.
- Lewin S., Munabi-Babigumira, S., Glenton, C., Daniels, K., Bosch-Capblanch, X., van Wyk, B.E., Odgaard-Jensen, J., Johansen, M., Aja, G.N., Zwarenstein, M., Scheel, I.B. (2010). Lay Health Workers in Primary and Community Health Care for Maternal and Child Health and the Management of Infectious Diseases. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, 1-85.
- McCormick B & Newald J. (1986) Outreach Works in Treating Homeless Youth. Hospitals, 60, 162.
- Mugavero, M., Westfall, A.O., Zinsky, A., Davilla, J., Drainoni, M.L., Gardner, L.I., Jeruly, J.C., Malitz, F., Marks, G., Metsch, L., Wilson, T.E. & Giordano, T.P. (2012). Measuring Retention in HIV Care: The elusive gold standard. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 61 (5), 574-580.
- Mugavero, M.J., Norton W.E., Saag M.S. (2011). Health Care System and Policy Factors Influencing Engagement in HIV Medical Care: Piecing together the fragments of a fractured health care delivery system. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2, S238-46.
- Rajabiun, S., Mallinson, R. K., McCoy, K., Coleman, S., Drainoni, M., Rebholz, C., & Holbert, T. (2007). Getting me Back on Track: The Role of Outreach Interventions in Engaging and Retaining People with HIV/AIDS in Medical Care. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 21, S20-S29.
- Richardson, J. L, Milam, J., McCutchan, A., Stoyanoff, S., Bolan, R., Weiss, J., Jemper, C., Larsen, R.A., Hollander, H., Weismuller, P., Chou, C.P., & Marks, G. (2004). Effect of Brief Safer-sex Counseling by Medical Providers to HIV-1 Seropositive Patients: a multi-clinic assessment. AIDS, 18, 1179-1186.
- Thompson, M.A., Mugavero, M.J., Amico, R., et al. (2012). Guidelines for Improving Entry Into and Retention in Care and Antiretroviral Adherence for Persons with HIV: Evidence-Based Recommendations from an International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care Panel. Annals of Internal Medicine 156(11):817-833.
- Tulsky J. University of California, San Francisco. Text Messaging Intervention to Improve Retention in Care and Virologic Suppression in an Urban HIV-Infected Population (Connect4Care). 2013.
- Viswanathan, M., Kraschnewski, J., Nishikawa, B., Morgan, L.C., Thieda, P., Honeycutt, A., Lohr, K.N., Jonas, D. (2009). Outcomes of Community Health Worker Interventions: Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 181. Triangle Park, NC: RTI International University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center. Retrieved November 2013.
- Willis, S., Castel, A.D., Ahmed, T., Olejemeh, C., Frison, L., Kharfen, M. (2013). Linkage, Engagement, and Viral Suppression Rates Among HIV-Infected Persons Receiving Care at Medical Case Management Programs in Washington, DC. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 64,S33-41.
- Yates, G.L., Pennbridge, J., Swofford, A., & MacKenzie, R.G. (1991). The Los Angeles System of Care for Runaway/Homeless Youth. Journal of Adolescent Health,12, 555-560.