Günthard HF, Calvez V, Paredes R, Pillay D, Shafer RW, Wensing AM, Jacobsen DM, RichmanDD. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance: 2018 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2018.
Contemporary antiretroviral therapies (ART) and management strategies have diminished both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment failure and the acquired resistance to drugs in resource-rich regions. However, transmission of drug-resistant viruses has not similarly decreased. In low- and middle-income regions, ART roll-out has improved outcomes, but has resulted in increasing acquired and transmitted resistances. Our objective was to review resistance to ART drugs and methods to detect it, and to provide updated recommendations for testing and monitoring for drug resistance in HIV-infected individuals.