Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been very successful at preserving immune function and controlling opportunistic infections among individuals infected with HIV. Oral mucosal diseases associated with advanced immunosuppression, including candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia, are significantly less common among patients on ART. In a study among perinatally HIV-infected youth on the same ART regimen for at least 1 year, investigators found that the mean decayed teeth scores of those receiving ART containing an integrase inhibitor was 86% higher than those of participants on ART without an integrase inhibitor after adjusting for age, lifetime proportion of unsuppressed viral load, and nadir CD4 cell count. Initiating protease inhibitors before 6 years of age was associated with significantly lower DMFT (decayed, missing, filled teeth) scores than those of participants who initiated at age 6 and older. This may warrant closer dental surveillance of perinatally HIV-infected youth who are receiving an integrase inhibitor.
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Shiboski CH, Yao TJ, Russell JS, et al; Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. The association between oral disease and type of antiretroviral therapy among perinatally HIV-infected youth. AIDS. 2018 Nov 13;32(17):2497-2505.