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Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents

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The guidelines address the following opportunistic infections: PCP, Toxo, Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, TB, MAC, Bacterial Respiratory Disease, Bacterial Enteric Disease, Bartonella, Syphilis, Candida, Endemic Mycoses (Cryptococcosis, Histo, Cocci, Aspergillus) CMV, Non-CMV Herpes (HSV, VZV, HHV-8) HPV, HBV, HCV, PML/JCV, and Geographic OIs of Specific Consideration (Malaria, Penicilliosis, Leishmania, Chagas, Isospora).

Recommendations in this report cover:

  • Preventing exposure to opportunistic pathogens; 
  • Preventing disease; 
  • Discontinuing primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; 
  • Treating disease; 
  • When to start ART in the setting of an acute OI; 
  • Monitoring for adverse effects (including immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome [IRIS]); 
  • Managing treatment failure; 
  • Preventing disease recurrence ("secondary prophylaxis" or chronic maintenance therapy); 
  • Discontinuing secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; and 
  • Special considerations during pregnancy. 

Slide sets to accompany the guidelines are available from the National Coordinating Resource Center.

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