Pregnant and Postpartum Co-infected Women

July 09, 2017
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This lesson focuses on the treatment guidelines and engagement in care strategies for pregnant and postpartum HIV/HCV co-infected women.

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  1. Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. Available at  Accessed April 11, 2017.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: U.S. Public Health Service. Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States - 2017 Update – A Clinical Practice Guideline.
  3. Prasad MR, Honegger JR. Hepatitis C virus in pregnancy. Am J Perinatol. 2013 Feb;30(2):149-59.
  4. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Available at Accessed April  23, 2017.
  5. CDC. Hepatitis B and C Infections. 
  6. Nesheim S, Taylor A, Lampe MA, et al. A framework for elimination of perinatal transmission of HIV in the United States. Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):738-44.
  7. Finocchario-Kessler S, Dariotis JK, Sweat MD, et al. Do HIV-infected women want to discuss reproductive plans with providers, and are those conversations occurring? AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2010 May;24(5):317-23.
  8. Squires KE, Hodder SL, Feinberg J, et al. Health needs of HIV-infected women in the United States: insights from the women living positive survey. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011 May;25(5):279-85.
  9. Finocchario-Kessler S, Mabachi N, Dariotis J, Anderson J, Goggin K, Sweat M. “We weren’t using condoms because we were trying to conceive”: The need for reproductive counseling for HIV+ women in clinical care. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2012 Nov;26(11):700-7.
  10. Finocchario-Kessler S, Bastos FI, Malta M. et al. Discussing childbearing with HIV-infected women of reproductive age in clinical care: a comparison of Brazil and the US. AIDS Behav. 2012 Jan;16(1):99-107.
  11. Taylor A, Furtado M, Hall L, Nesheim S. HIV testing among commercially insured pregnant women: US, 2009-2010. In: Program and abstracts of the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; March 3-6, 2013; Atlanta. Abstract 904.
  12. Peters V, Liu KL, Dominguez K, et al. Missed opportunities for perinatal HIV prevention among HIV-exposed infants born 1996-2000, Pediatric Spectrum of HIV Disease Cohort. Pediatrics. 2003 May;111(5 Pt 2):1186-91.
  13. Liao C, Golden WC, Anderson JR, Coleman  JS. Missed opportunities for repeat HIV testing in pregnancy: Implications for elimination of mother-to-child transmission in the United States. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2017 Jan;31(1):20-26.
  14. Momplaisir FM, Brady KA, Fekete T, Thompson DR, Diez Roux A, Yehia BR. Time of HIV diagnosis and engagement in prenatal care impact virologic outcomes of pregnant women with HIV. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 1;10(7):e0132262.
  15. Cooper ER, Charurat M, Mofenson L, et al. Combination antiretroviral strategies for the treatment of pregnant HIV-1-infected women and prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Apr 15;29(5):484-94.
  16. Yehia BR, Schranz AJ, Momplaisir F, et al. Outcomes of HIV-infected patients receiving care at multiple clinics. AIDS Behav. 2014 Aug;18(8):1511-22.
  17. Katz IT, Leister E, Kacanek D, et al. Factors associated with lack of viral suppression at delivery among highly active antiretroviral therapy–naive women with HIV: A cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Jan 20;162(2):90-9.
  18. Adams JW, Brady KA, Michael YL, Yehia BR, Momplaisir FM. Postpartum engagement in HIV care: An important predictor of long-term retention in care and viral suppression. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15;61(12):1880-7.
  19. Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006 Sep 22;55(RR-14):1-17.
  20. Rimawi BH, Haddad L, Badell ML, Chakraborty R. Management of HIV infection during pregnancy in the United States: Updated evidence-based recommendations and future potential practices. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2016;2016:7594306.
  21. Colvin CJ, Konopka S, Chalker JC, et al. A systematic review of health system barriers and enablers for antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. PLoS One. 2014 Oct 10;9(10):e108150.
  22. Hackl KL, Somlai AM, Kelly JA, Kalichman SC. Women living with HIV/AIDS: the dual challenge of being a patient and caregiver. Health Soc Work. 1997 Feb;22(1):53-62.
  23. Aoun S, Ramos E. Hypertension in the HIV-infected patient. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2000 Oct;2(5):478-81.
  24. Turan B, Stringer KL, Onono M, et al. Linkage to HIV care, postpartum depression, and HIV-related stigma in newly diagnosed pregnant women living with HIV in Kenya: a longitudinal observational study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014 Dec 3;14:400.
  25. Hodgson I, Plummer ML, Konopka SN, et al. A systematic review of individual and contextual factors affecting ART initiation, adherence, and retention for HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 5;9(11):e111421.
  26. Boehme AK, Davies SL, Moneyham L, Shrestha S, Schumacher J, Kempf MC. A qualitative study on factors impacting HIV care adherence among postpartum HIV-infected women in the rural southeastern USA. AIDS Care. 2014;26(5):574-81.
  27. Buchberg MK, Fletcher FE, Vidrine DJ, et al. A mixed-methods approach to understanding barriers to postpartum retention in care among low-income, HIV-infected women. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015 Mar;29(3):126-32.
  28. Siddiqui R, Bell T, Sangi-Haghpeykar H, Minard C, Levison J. Predictive factors for loss to postpartum follow-up among low income HIV-infected women in Texas. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2014 May;28(5):248-53.